Hinduism is a wonderful religion. Here even the Gods and saints have to obey the rules. It is very interesting to study the way curses and boons work in Hinduism. Equally interesting is how they are showered upon people and gods .Though we hear about the curses in other mythologies such as Greek and Roman there is a logical pattern in Hinduism. Here truthfulness is the basis for the curses and boons. Let us take the curses first. If a sage or god or a Deva/semi god curses someone, it can’t be taken back even by the person who spelt it. It is like a bullet from the rifle or an arrow from the bow. But every curse has an antidote or atonement. We can call it an escape route or exit strategy.
Following things are obvious in the episodes of cursing:
- Water is used to curse a person. Water has got magical powers or it is used as a medium to transfer those powers.
- A person curses another for the wrong doing. Arrogance and bad deeds invariably attract a curse
- When the person begs for pardon or mercy, the curser gives an antidote which is usually an escape route-but comes after a long time. Here is the beauty of Hinduism. No one can escape the Karma. If some one does something wrong that person must undergo punishment. But it is not an eternal condemnation. Any sinner can become a saint.
- Kings (Dasaratha,Ravana,Vali),Devas(Indra,Rambha),Gods(Brahma) and mortals (Ahalya,Sakunthala) are famous examples of victims.
- A person who curses, spends enormous energy to do it. This energy comes from the penance he or she does. Actually it is like wasting their energy. But most of the curses come out of rage/extreme anger.
- It shows that one’s words have got magical powers to turn any one in to a stone or animal etc.
- Though we hear about curses in the Vedas, particularly Atharva Veda, they are of general category. We don’t know the victims. But in mythology we know the victims.
- There are more episodes of curses in Puranas than in epics.
- In Rama’s time we hear about curses more than Krishna’s time. Mahabharata characters are more human.
- In the modern times we don’t hear about curses at all. But there are a lot of Sthala Puranas where we hear about it. But most of them have no basis. Just to enhance the prestige of the place a lot of things are said.
- Truth is the basis for all the curses. That is why even the person cursed could not withdraw it. If the person withdraws it, he will loose the power. His words won’t come true anymore. One can’t go back on his words.
- Any one can curse. If you have a good case-honesty and truth- you can do it. Most of the curses are from men-not from women.
- Curses are there in all the cultures in India from northern Himalayas to southern most point Kanyakumari. We hear it in the Tamil epics Silappathikaram, Kundalakesi etc. The earliest Tamil poems ‘Purananuru’ also hint at it.
- Durvasa, a short tempered sage is the holder of highest number of curses. He deserves a place in the Guinness Book of Records!!
- The curses- most of them are on one to one basis. But there are episodes where even thousands of people were made victims.
- The curse is directly proportional to the bad acts done by a person. The severe the crime, severe is the curse.
- Boons become curses in the case of bad people/asuras. Asura’s boons are taken literally. Words carry more weight than the spirit behind the words.
Famous curse episodes: Ahalya , Sakunthala, Rambha, Dasaratha, Ravana, Vali, Indra, Brahma
Science Behind Curses
Modern science is yet to discover the power of the words and water. But a day will come when they will appreciate the ancient Hindu discovery of these powers. Hindus believe that a word can be transformed in to energy. A medium like water can be used to transfer it to the victims. Penance power is the ‘power house’ that supplies energy to this process. We see it in the launching of missiles (Astras) in the Mahabharata and Ramayana wars.
Strange are the ways of the boons!! Boons also require enough power from the power house of one’s penance. Vishwamitra spent most of his power by helping the unwanted. Once he tried to send the king Trisanku to heaven in human body. But he had not got enough power to push him through. So Trisanku got stuck up in the middle.
Boons are quite opposite to curses. Someone, mostly, sages or gods, become happy because of the penance or good deeds of their devotees and give the boons. When boons are given Gods don’t discriminate between goodies (Devas) and the baddies (Asuras). Equal Opportunity Policy is followed! Sometimes even Gods got scared because of their own boons(Eg. Story of Pasmasura, Shiva was rescued by Vishnu!)
As a result or reward for the penance, a God, usually one from the Trinity, would appear and grant a Boon. This was usually in the form of some power in the form of protection against certain creatures, or unlimited power or immortality etc
Anybody can perform a penance. During the penance, the person usually meditates on the deity being propitiated, and often chants the Mantras (incantations) extolling the glory of that God. A penance ends when the deity appears in person and grants the boon sought by the person.
Boons may also be granted for particularly meritorious deeds. Nearly all deities can grant boons, as can the sages. Sometimes even mortal men of merit can grant a boon.
Kalidasa and Tenali Rama beacame great poets and comedian/jester respectively by the boons given by Goddess Kali.
Even animals were subject to curses and boons!
The crow lost one of its eyes because of Rama’ curse. When Kakasura in the form of crow attacked Sita, Rama cursed it.
The squirrel was given three lines/patches on it back by Rama. When it helped Rama to build a bridge between India and Sri Lanka to bring Sita back from captivity Rama became so happy and stroked the squirrel on its back and it got its three lines!
In all the Asura ( bad people/demons) stories we see one string going all along. Their boons themselves became curses for them because of their bad intentions! Gods play tricks on bad people and make them go for wrong boons.
Pasmasura tried to test the boon given by Lord Siva on Siva’s head itself. Had he succeeded in it, Siva would have been burnt to ashes. Siva had to run for his life and at last saved by Vishnu. But the working of boons also is strange. Gods can’t withdraw it. But ‘’Truth alone triumphs’’(Satyameva Jayate—Mundakopanishad) is a maxim in Hinduism. So God triumphs at the end. Many times the Asuras/demons were fooled. They wanted one thing, but got quite the opposite. This is because of their bad intentions.
Ravana’s brother Kumbakarna wanted immortality. But he was tricked and got never ending sleep. This was due to a minute change in the Sanskrit words. Kumbakarna intended to ask for 'nithyathva' (permanence) instead asked for 'nidhrathva' (slumber forever). The Lord without a moment's delay granted the boon and disappeared. Kumbakarna had to pursue his penance once again to get an amendment to the boon - to reduce the length of sleep to half the year!
Another demon wanted one strong son to kill Indra. But he got one son Vrutrasura who was killed by Indra. This was due to minute change in the accent of Vedic mantras.Tvasta mispronounced the word ‘indrasatru’ and got a son Vrtra who became the victim of Indra instead of slayer of Indra.
Vritrasura also got a boon not to be killed by any weapon made of wood or metal or stone.But Indra killed him with foam.
Hiranyakasipu was the king of Daityas. He performed tapas/penance and got a boon from Brahma: he could not be slain by man or beast. He became arrogant with the boon. He thought he was so powerful that he could terrorize all the three worlds. But God appeared as a man-lion (Narasimha avatar) and killed him.
Dasaratha gave two boons to Kaikeyi, because she drove his chariot to victory in the battle field. In those days even women went to the battle field. But Kaikeyi used both the boons against Dasaratha. King Shantanu gave Bishma a boon to choose his own time for death.
Tamil’s belief of Black Tongue
Tamils believe that certain people have got ‘black tongue’ (Karu Naakku) and whatever they say will come true. Tamil word for ‘black’ and ‘curse’ are almost similar-‘Karu’ and ‘Karuvu’ respectively. Probably this gave credence to the belief of ‘black tongue’(Karu Nakku). People fear even to see such people because they always say something negative and it comes true.
Lesson we learn from this is always think positive, say something positive. The minute we curse someone, we lose our energy—particularly the spiritual energy.